# Frequently asked questions

#### ‘Why⁉’

The typeface was introduced at the 2020 Julia Programming Language conference, JuliaCon, in Lisbon, Portugal, and it was going to be my contribution to the festivities.

#### ‘Where can I see it in action?’

Feel free to compare it with other fonts at dev fonts and www.programmingfonts.org.

If you use a lot of mathematics, visit the mono-math.netlify.app site, which shows how Unicode math symbols look in various fonts.

You can visit this mirror of the Julia blog. It hasn’t been updated for a while (it was useful during the development of Franklin.jl), but all the code examples use JuliaMono.

You can browse through this local copy of an old Julia manual. The default Roboto-Mono font has been replaced with JuliaMono-Regular.

As an example of using JuliaMono in Julia documentation, made with Documenter.jl, see the documentation for Luxor.jl.

#### ‘I don’t like it as much as \$(my_favourite_font)’

That’s not a question! But I know what you mean. Choice of work environment (editor, font, colour scheme, background music, preferred beverage, etc.) is very much a personal thing, and over the hours, days, and weeks that you work with your particular setup, you’ll grow accustomed to it, and unfamiliar work environments will look unappealing or even ugly. You’d probably need to try any alternatives for a while before you get more accustomed to them. Fortunately, you don’t have to try Comic Code, the Kakoune editor, the music of Autechre, Durian tea, or anything else that’s new and unfamiliar; just stick to your current favourites!

#### ‘How can I use the web fonts?’

Find the relevant CSS file, and add a link to the WOFF2 stored on the server.

Option 1 (using the jsdelivr content delivery network):

@font-face {
font-family: JuliaMono-Regular;
src: url("https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/gh/cormullion/juliamono/webfonts/JuliaMono-Regular.woff2");
}

Option 2 (using the cdnjs content delivery network):

@font-face {
font-family: JuliaMono-Regular;
src: url("https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/juliamono/0.042/JuliaMono-Regular.woff2");
}

Then, in the area of the CSS where you control the appearance of monospaced text:

pre {
font-family: JuliaMono-Regular;
}
code {
font-family: JuliaMono-Regular;
}

Notice that the CDNJS version points to a specific version (e.g. v0.042 here), whereas the JSDELIVR version always retrieves the latest release.

You may prefer to serve the WOFF/2 fonts from your own server. One problem you might encounter is related to Cross-origin resource sharing, which on some browsers prevents one web page from downloading fonts from another.

There are some other options for the @font-face directive, which determine things like the behaviour of web pages while the fonts are still downloading, the range of characters you want to download, and so on.

#### ‘How do I control features in CSS, in Atom/Juno, or VS Code?’

##### VS-Code

In VS-Code you’ll find the font settings somewhere in the labyrinthine (but thankfully searchable) Settings department.

To control the display of contextual and stylistic alternates, click on the Edit Settings in JSON, and look for editor.fontLigatures:

This uses the feature codes (listed here). These should be switched on or off in a single line.

For example, if you want all the currently available stylistic sets, use:

selector {
"editor.fontLigatures": "'zero', 'ss01', 'ss02', 'ss03', 'ss04',
'ss05', 'ss06',  'ss07', 'ss08', 'ss09', 'ss10', 'ss11', 'ss12', 'ss13', 'ss14'"
}

Or if you just don’t like the contextual alternates, but quite like the slashed zero, simpler g, and lighter asterisk, use this:

selector {
"editor.fontLigatures": "'calt' off, 'zero', 'ss01', 'ss05'",
}
##### Atom/Juno

In the Atom/Juno stylesheet, you can specify the font with the required CSS selectors:

selector {
font-family: "JuliaMono";
}

which defaults to the Regular weight, or

selector {
font-family: "JuliaMono-Medium";
}

You can switch off the contextual alternates (such as -> and =>) with:

selector {
font-variant-ligatures: no-contextual;
}

Or on (if it’s not enabled by default) with:

selector {
font-variant-ligatures: contextual;
}

Select any stylistic sets in a single line. For example:

selector {
font-feature-settings: "zero", "ss02";
}

enables the slashed zero (0) and the simpler "g" (g).

In Atom/Juno, you’d put these in the CSS stylesheet, perhaps like this:

atom-text-editor {
font-variant-ligatures: no-contextual;
font-feature-settings: "ss01", "ss02", "ss03",
"ss04", "ss05", "ss06";
}

#### ‘Can I use this font in a Jupyter notebook? And how do I do it?’

It’s a good question. Some browsers these days are reluctant to give you access to things stored on your own local disks, “for security reasons”. But a local copy of the font may be available and accessible on your particular set-up. If not, you could try using web fonts, as above. For example, if there’s a Jupyter CSS file here:

~/.jupyter/custom/custom.css

you could add definitions like this:

@font-face {
font-family: JuliaMono-Regular;
src: url("https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/gh/cormullion/juliamono/webfonts/JuliaMono-Regular.woff2");
}

.rendered_html table{
font-size: 16px !important;
}

div.input_area {
background: #def !important;
font-size: 16px !important;
}

.CodeMirror {
font-size: 16px !important;
font-family: "JuliaMono-Regular" !important;
font-feature-settings: "zero", "ss01";
font-variant-ligatures: contextual;
}

which downloads the font once and is then available to applications.

#### ‘Is it just for Julia coding? How does it “work well with” Julia?’

No, that's just the language I use. You can use the font for any purpose, with any language.

# In python3
# By default the encoding is "utf-8"
import sys

# printing the default encoding
print("The default encoding for python3 is:", sys.getdefaultencoding())

# to define string as unicode
# we need to prefix every string with u"...."
p = u"\u2119"
y = u"\u01b4"
t = u"\u2602"
h = u"\u210c"
o = u"\u00f8"
n = u"\u1f24"

# printing Python
print(p+y+t+h+o+n)
The default encoding for python3 is: utf-8
ℙƴ☂ℌøἤ

or APL (technically BQN):

⊑+`∘⌽⍟12↕2  # The 12th Fibonacci number

For Julia specifically:

• it has all the glyphs used in the Unicode Input chapter of the Julia documentation (except for the emojis)

• a few of the glyphs and ligatures were designed with the Julia programming language in mind

• the font contains special features such as contextual alternates, stylistic sets, and “ligatures” that complement Julia syntax

#### ‘How do I use the font in plots, say in Plots.jl?’

Another great question. Are you sure you want a monospaced font on your plot? If you do, it should be easy enough to ask for the font when you plot. But it’s never as simple as you want it to be, as is usual in the world of fonts.

I know very little about plotting in Julia, but some investigations suggest that:

• pyplot() works well, mostly, as does Makie.jl

• some backends do their own thing with fonts. For example, I couldn’t persuade the GR backend to use JuliaMono at all.

Here’s some code that uses JuliaMono for a plot. The plot shows the frequency of occurrence of every Unicode character used in the Julia git repository, and uses the characters as plot markers. I went through every text file and totalled all the characters - there are 956044 letter “e”s, and so on. I’m using pyplot(); the freqs DataFrame holds the characters and the counts. I’ve created a few font objects using Plots.font(), which makes it easier to use different text styles in the plot() function. I haven’t yet worked out how to use the different weights of a font family.

using Plots, Plots.PlotMeasures
pyplot()
theme(:dark)

juliamonofont8 = Plots.font(family="JuliaMono", 8,
halign=:center, colorant"white")
juliamonofont12 = Plots.font(family="JuliaMono", 12,
halign=:center, colorant"white")
juliamonofont80 = Plots.font(family="JuliaMono", 80,
halign=:center, colorant"grey30")

annotation = "counting character frequencies\nin Julia source files "

p = plot(1:100,
freqs[1:100, 2],
fontfamily         = "JuliaMono",
margin             = 20mm,
yaxis              = :log10,
annotation         = [
(50, 1000, Plots.text(annotation, juliamonofont12)),
(80, 1_000_000, Plots.text("", juliamonofont80))
],
linewidth          = 0.25,
series_annotations = Plots.text.(freqs[1:100, 1], Ref(juliamonofont8)),
xlabel             = "← more frequent | less frequent → ",
ylabel             = "occurrences (log scale) ",
labelfontsize      = 6,
titlefontsize      = 14,
formatter          = :plain,
size               = (800, 500),
title              = "Top 100 characters\nin the Julia github repo ",
legend             = false,
)

display(p)

The top 9 characters - “etanirsol” - are a good match for the typical English frequency count e.g. “etarionsh”. It’s to be expected that parentheses make a very good showing, here.

Although over 3600 unique characters occur in the Julia documentation, about 3000 of them appear just once. All of them, except the emojis which aren’t in JuliaMono, could be plotted, but the long tail isn’t very interesting visually.

For plotting emoji characters, you’ll have to dive into the internals of the plots system...

Notice that the y-axis labels are in DejaVu Sans, provided with matplotlib. That’s because the :log10 scaling code does its own $$\LaTeX$$-y business, ignoring the current font. However, at least I was able to insert the Julia logo successfully, since it’s part of the JuliaMono font.

#### ‘Can I use it in a $$\LaTeX$$ document?’

In a $$\LaTeX$$ document, you should be able to define and use local fonts.

Robert Moss put together an excellent package to help negotiate the various font issues that you might encounter when using Unicode and $$\LaTeX$$:

An earlier approach that worked for me is as follows:

In your $$\LaTeX$$ source file, define the font, using the local pathname:

\newfontfamily \JuliaMono {JuliaMono-Regular.otf}[
Path      = /Users/me/Library/Fonts/,
Extension = .otf
]
\newfontface \JuliaMonoMedium{JuliaMono-Regular}
\setmonofont{JuliaMonoMedium}[
Contextuals=Alternate
]

Then you can use something like minted to format the code.

(I used the lualatex engine.)

#### ‘Aren’t these font files too big?’

It depends if you mean the web fonts or the ‘desktop’ fonts. Web fonts come in two flavours, .WOFF and .WOFF2, where the 2 indicates a more recent and slightly more compact format. JuliaMono-Regular.woff2 is 837KB - the size of a PNG image, perhaps?

The .TTF versions are getting on for 2.5MB each. (See Does it work on Windows.)

For comparison, the Themes folder of .CSS files for the Julia manual (and for every manual built with Documenter.jl since v0.21) is about 700KB. So in that light the WOFF2 fonts aren’t that bad. Of course, the two Google fonts downloaded by every Julia document (Lato and Roboto) are tiny, at 14KB and 11KB, with 221 glyphs in each.

So, if you’re building a website, or designing for mobile applications, the size of the WOFF2 file(s) might be an important factor to weigh against the advantages of having predictable character sets. (This site is a bit of an exception, for obvious reasons.) Note that you can specify font subsets in the CSS using the unicode-range feature, which defines a restricted set of characters which you know are going to be used, so that users don’t download any that they won’t need.

You could consider using the ‘-Latin’ variants to obviate the initial loading time. These have a limited number of glyphs (restricted to the basic Latin character set), but will at least be quick to download.

#### ‘How is this different from any other Unicode font?’

You’re right, of course, there are many coding fonts, all perfectly adequate for the task of programming in Julia and most other languages. Comparing two different fonts is a matter of how important small similarities and differences are. Perhaps with one font you’ll see the occasional empty box or odd replacement rather than the character you were hoping for. Or perhaps sometimes you won’t like a particular glyph.

More likely, though, the overall ‘feel’ of a new and unfamiliar font - too narrow, too wide, too dense, too light, too quirky, too dull, too consistent, too variable - is a matter of personal taste, immune to objective measurement.

Most people probably can’t tell the difference between Helvetica and Arial, and certainly aren’t going to be bothered about minor differences between JuliaMono and other coding fonts. But that’s fine. Just stick to your current favourites!

#### ‘Where are the design notes? Don't typeface designers love talking about how it was designed?’

Oh, yes. Well, the design goals of JuliaMono were to make a programmming font that's readable, easy to use, unquirky, simple, and including most of the characters (glyphs) required for modern scientific and technical programming.

Matthew Carter, the famous typeface designer, talks about how the aim when designing a font is to create “a beautiful set of letters” rather than “a set of beautiful letters”; the idea being that making the characters in the font harmonious and consistent with each other is of primary importance. But I would suggest that most typefaces, such as Matthew Carter’s familiar Georgia typeface, are designed to communicate prose in text languages - English, French, Russian, Chinese - where the words are recognizable units, and there’s much redundancy, such that predictability assists reading. You want the eye to glide swiftly and easily over the page.

However, programming and coding typefaces have to address different problems:

• code can often consist of sequences of non-language characters

• a single variable name might combine latin and greek letters and various punctation characters

• often you want to compare areas of text with other areas (such as code laid out in tabular form)

• sometimes the characters are placed so as to form larger patterns, such as bitstrings, or array contents

• punctuation marks are no longer just hints to guide readers, but critical pieces of syntax that might completely alter the meaning of the surrounding text

• the programmer doesn't read code in the same way that they would read prose (citation needed!)

• there's much less redundancy in code: when reading prose you'll find it easy to overlook misspellings and typos, when working with code you'll want to find the misspellings and typos - you don't really want your eye to glide smoothly past them

So I'd argue that making letters easy to distinguish is as important as making them harmoniously consistent. So a primary goal is to make characters that tend to be similar different. For example, the digits 3, 8, and 0 have similar curved tops, so I adopted the flat-top 3 and made the 0 more distinctive. The letters a, g, p, and q in many fonts often have the same round shape sitting on the baseline; by adopting the two-storey design for a and g there are two fewer letters to be confused. The asymmetries of characters like B and 8 have been enhanced. And so on.

The shapes aren’t compressed or condensed. The glyphs aren't fashionably thin. It might feel quite “airy” because of the generous spacing. The punctuation is quite solid and possibly larger than you'd expect (my eyesight is probably poorer than yours!). Perhaps it's not so good for non-code text (do you find this web page difficult to read?).

If you want to find out more about typeface and font legibility, a good place to start would be to see the work of Sophie Beier.

#### ‘Is it a package? Was it written in Julia? How will this contribute to the ecosystem of Julia language?’

In the world of typographical software, one programming language is currently ubiquitous (hint: one of the leading programmers in the typography realm is Just van Rossum, one of the van Rossum brothers) and it’s not Julia.

The typeface isn’t a Julia package. It might be, soon! But although Julia wasn’t used to build the typeface, I did use Julia quite a lot while designing it; sometimes to generate glyphs, there being plenty of symmetrical designs that lend themselves to programmatic construction with a simple graphics program (e.g. Luxor.jl). And also for producing glyph lists, charts, test output, and build scripts. And the various graphics you see here and in the specimen PDF were also made with Julia. So in that sense at least the font is a bit Julian.

And how will JuliaMono contribute? It’s often in the nature of an experiment that the outcome is uncertain until it’s been carried out.

#### ‘Is it finished?’

The first β release, version 0.001, was released on July 27, 2020. Version 0.041 was released in July 2021 - there have been many improvements since the first release. Always download the latest version if you want the typeface to perform at its best.

#### ‘Why don’t these accents/marks work properly?’

Unicode allows you to combine characters. In the Julia REPL, you can type a character and then modify it by adding a mark or diacritic. For example:

e\vec

displays as

e⃗

and the arrow mark is displayed above the character. These combining marks are listed in the Unicode Input section of the Julia documentation. It’s sometimes possible to add more than one:

e\vec\dot

which JuliaMono renders like this:

e⃗̇

However, this doesn’t work in all text environments, such as the terminals in Atom/Juno, VS Code, or Jupyter:

For Atom/Juno and VSCode, it’s because they're using a JavaScript terminal emulator (xterm.js) rather than a full terminal. But there may be improvements in the future. Other terminal applications choose not to implement all OpenType features, for performance reasons, perhaps.

If it does work for you, this is fun:

jul\iota\ddot\dota

giving:

julϊ̇a

#### ‘Does it work on macOS?’

Yes. JuliaMono works well, with most modern MacOS text editors, such as Atom/Juno, Visual Studio Code, Sublime Text, the excellent free CotEditor, Panic's new Nova editor, and TextEdit, among others. If these editors support OpenType features such as stylistic alternatives and ligatures (not all do), these features of JuliaMono should work well.

With older applications, such as the old-school BBEdit text editor, you may experience a few glitches when using fonts such as FiraCode, IBMPlex Mono, JetBrains Mono, JuliaMono, Operator Mono, and Source Code Pro (to name just the ones I checked). BBEdit doesn't support OpenType ligatures either. But apart from that, you can still use it.

#### ‘Does it work on Linux?’

Yes.

Font management in Linux may require you to become familiar with the fontconfig program. And it may be necessary to provide an additional configuration file (in /etc/fonts/local.conf for example), that contains instructions like the following:

<alias>
<family>monospace</family>
<prefer>
<family>JuliaMono</family>
</prefer>
</alias>

With some older terminal software, the ligatures and alternate characters may cause problems, or not work at all. Not all terminals choose to display ligatures, others are just confused by fonts that have them.

#### ‘Does it work on Windows?’

The font works well on a good quality display, but will struggle to maintain quality when displayed on low-resolution displays.

On Windows, the shapes of letters are distorted in order to place the important features of letters on pixels, rather than ‘between’ pixels (which could make features disappear). On high-resolution displays, as found on Apple devices, it isn't necesary to distort letter shapes in this way. The distortion is controlled by a process called ‘hinting’. On Windows displays, you may find that there is unevenness and variations in thickness and alignments, particularly at smaller sizes. This is due to the hinting generating distorted shapes to target pixels.

JuliaMono is an OTF/TTF-flavoured font that contains hinting instructions. Hinted fonts are larger than OTF/CFF (PostScript-flavour) as a consequence.

#### ‘Any love for nerdfonts?’

nerdfonts can add about four thousand extra glyphs to a font. It does this by creating a new font that combines an existing font’s glyphs with a bunch of new ones, using a FontForge Python script. This is quite cool, in a way.

JuliaMono concentrates on the Unicode standard glyphs, whereas Nerdfonts adds many non-standard glyphs such as product and brand logos, trade names, icons for dozens of file extensions, programming languages, commercial applications, and a fair number of other characters such as weather symbols. It’s aimed at a much wider audience. Nerdfonts doesn’t overlap much with JuliaMono.

The nerdfonts project is a cool hack, but there’s some unnecessary duplication of icons and other Unicode characters.

If you do build a nerdfont version of JuliaMono, it will be quite large.

Good to know!

One day perhaps.